Published Studies

This page includes publications from individual clinical trials testing food aid products, and reports and evaluations from programs using food aid products. These resources are tagged according to country, nutritional problem studied, intervention used, study type, year, and author. If relevant to more than one category, the document appears in both categories. New resources are added regularly according to search criteria and standards developed by REFINE.

Do you know of a recently published study or trial that isn’t included here? Email us at REFINEnutrition@gmail.com!


Olney, D. K., Pedehombga, A., Ruel, M. T., Dillon, A.. "A 2-year integrated agriculture and nutrition and health behavior change communication program targeted to women in Burkina Faso reduces anemia, wasting, and diarrhea in children 3-12.9 months of age at baseline: a cluster-randomized controlled trial ." The Journal of Nutrition 145 , no. 6 (2015) : 1317-1324
Study Interventions
  • Behavior change communication (BCC)
Research Gaps
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Bauserman, M., Lokangaka, A., Gado, J., Close, K., Wallace, D., Kodondi, K., Tshefu, A., Bose, C.. "A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia ." Public Health Nutrition 18 , no. 10 (2015) : 1785-92
Study Interventions
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Ryan, K. N., Adams, K. P., Vosti, S. A., Ordiz, M. I., Cimo, E. D., Manary, M. J.. "A comprehensive linear programming tool to optimize formulations of ready-to-use therapeutic foods: an application to Ethiopia ." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 , no. 6 (2014) : 1551-1558
Study Interventions
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Ramírez-Luzuriaga, M. J., Unar-Munguía, M., Rodríguez-Ramírez, S., Rivera, J. A., González de Cosío, T.. "A food transfer program without a formal education component modifies complementary feeding practices in poor rural Mexican communities ." The Journal of Nutrition 146 , no. 1 (2016) : 107-13
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Behavior change communication (BCC)
  • Cash transfer
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Thakwalakwa, C., Ashorn, P., Phuka, J., Cheung, Y. B., Briend, A., Puumalainen, T., Maleta, K.. "A lipid-based nutrient supplement but not corn-soy blend modestly increases weight gain among 6-to 18-month-old moderately underweight children in rural Malawi ." The Journal of Nutrition 140 , no. 11 (2010) : 2008-2013
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
LaGrone, L. N., Trehan, I., Meuli, G. J., Wang, R. J., Thakwalakwa, C., Maleta, K., Manary, M. J.. "A novel fortified blended flour, corn-soy blend "plus-plus," is not inferior to lipid-based ready-to-use supplementary foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Malawian children ." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95 , no. 1 (2012) : 212-9
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Locally produced
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Batra, P., Schlossman, N., Balan, I., Pruzensky, W., Balan, A., Brown, C., Gamache, M. G., Schleicher, M. M., Braima de Sa, A., Saltzman, E., Wood, L., Roberts, S. B.. "A randomized controlled trial offering higher- compared with lower-dairy second meals daily in preschools in Guinea-Bissau demonstrates an attendance-dependent increase in weight gain for both meal types and an increase in mid-upper arm circumference ." The Journal of Nutrition 146 , no. 1 (2015) : 124-132
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Oakley, E., Reinking, J., Sandige, H., Trehan, I., Kennedy, G., Maleta, K., Manary, M.. "A ready-to-use therapeutic food containing 10% milk is less effective than one with 25% milk in the treatment of severely malnourished children ." The Journal of Nutrition 140 , no. 12 (2010) : 2248-2252
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Efficacy
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Mangani, C., Manary, M., Alho, L., Ashorn, P.. "A single-centre, randomized, single-blind, parallel group clinical trial in rural Malawi, testing the growth promoting effect of long-term complementary feeding of infants with a high-energy, micronutrient fortified spread ." FANTA Project (2012)
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Langlois, B., Rogers, B.. "A tale of two measures: Self-report and lab-assessed values in amount of oil Added to CSB porridge prepared by caregivers of children with moderate acute malnutrition in Southern Malawi ." The FASEB Journal 30 , no. 1 (2016)
Study Interventions
  • Behavior change communication (BCC)
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Adu-Afarwuah, S., Lartey, A., Zeilani, M., Dewey, K. G.. "Acceptability of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) among Ghanaian infants and pregnant or lactating women ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 7 , no. 4 (2011) : 344-56
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • Pregnant & Lactating Women
Iuel-Brockdorf, A., Dræbelc, T. A., Fabiansenb, C., Cichon, B., Brix Christensen, V., Yameogob, C., Ritz, C., Frahm Olsen, M., Friis, H.. "Acceptability of new formulations of corn-soy blends and lipid-based nutrient supplements in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso ." Appetite (2015)
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Composition
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Rothman, M., Berti, C., Smuts, C. M., Faber, M., Covic, N.. "Acceptability of novel small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements for complementary feeding in a peri-urban South African community ." Food and Nutrition Bulletin 36 , no. 4 (2015) : 455-466
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Phuka, J., Ashorn, U., Ashorn, P., Zeilani, M., Cheung, Y. B., Dewey, K. G., Manary, M., Maleta, K.. "Acceptability of three novel lipid-based nutrient supplements among Malawian infants and their caregivers ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 7 , no. 4 (2011) : 368-377
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Composition
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Hess, S. Y., Bado, L., Aaron, G. J., Ouédraogo, J. B., Zeilani, M., Brown, K. H.. "Acceptability of zinc-fortified, lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) prepared for young children in Burkina Faso ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 7 , no. 4 (2011) : 357-367
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Ruel, M. T., Menon, P., Habicht, J., Loechl, C., Bergeron, G., Pelto, G., Arimond, M., Maluccio, J., Michaud, L., Hankebo, B.. "Age-based preventive targeting of food assistance and behaviour change and communication for reduction of childhood undernutrition in Haiti: a cluster randomised trial ." The Lancet 371 , no. 9612 (2008) : 588-595
Study Interventions
  • Behavior change communication (BCC)
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Thakwalakwa, C. M., Ashorn, P., Jawati, M., Phuka, J. C., Cheung, Y. B., Maleta, K. M.. "An effectiveness trial showed lipid-based nutrient supplementation but not corn-soya blend offered a modest benefit in weight gain among 6- to 18-month-old underweight children in rural Malawi ." Public Health Nutrition 15 , no. 9 (2012) : 1755-62
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Locally produced
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Trehan, I., Goldbach, H. S., LaGrone, L. N., Meuli, G. J., Wang, R. J., Maleta, K. M., Manary, M. J.. "Antibiotics as part of the management of severe acute malnutrition ." New England Journal of Medicine 368 , no. 5 (2013) : 425-435
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Belachew, T., Nekatibeb, H.. "Assessment of outpatient therapeutic programme for severe acute malnutrition in three regions of Ethiopia ." East African Medical Journal 84 , no. 12 (2007) : 577-588
Study Interventions
  • Behavior change communication (BCC)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Hidrobo, M., Hoddinott, J., Peterman, A., Margolies, A., Moreira, V.. "Cash, food, or vouchers? Evidence from a randomized experiment in northern Ecuador ." Journal of Development Economics 107 (2014) : 144-156
Study Interventions
  • Cash transfer
  • Other
Research Gaps
  • Cost
  • Effectiveness
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Steenkamp, L., Nomvete, A., Venter, D.. "Catch-up growth in children with severe acute malnutrition: comparison of two therapeutic feeding approaches at a district hospital, South Africa ." Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 17 , no. 2 (2016)
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Efficacy
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Bauserman, M., Lokangaka, A., Kodondi, K., Gado, J., Viera, A. J., Bentley, M. E., Engmann, C., Tshefu, A., Bose, C.. "Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 11 , no. Suppl 4 (2015) : 214-220
Study Interventions
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • Pregnant & Lactating Women
Bahwere, P., Balaluka, B., Wells, J. C., Mbiribindi, C. N., Sadler, K., Akomo, P., Dramaix-Wilmet, M., Collins, S.. "Cereals and pulse-based ready-to-use therapeutic food as an alternative to the standard milk- and peanut paste-based formulation for treating severe acute malnutrition: a noninferiority, individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial ." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103 , no. 4 (2016) : 1145-1161
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Locally produced
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Efficacy
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Tadesse, E., Ekström, E., Berhane, Y.. "Challenges in implementing the integrated community-based outpatient therapeutic program for severely malnourished children in rural Southern Ethiopia ." Nutrients 8 , no. 5 (2016) : 251
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Namusoke, H., Hother, A., Rytter, M. J., Kæstel, P., Babirekere-Iriso, E., Fabiansen, C., Girma, T., Ritz, C., Michaelsen, K., Briend, A., Friis, H.. "Changes in plasma phosphate during in-patient treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition: an observational study in Uganda ." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2016)
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Efficacy
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM