Published Studies

This page includes publications from individual clinical trials testing food aid products, and reports and evaluations from programs using food aid products. These resources are tagged according to country, nutritional problem studied, intervention used, study type, year, and author. If relevant to more than one category, the document appears in both categories. New resources are added regularly according to search criteria and standards developed by REFINE.

Do you know of a recently published study or trial that isn’t included here? Email us at REFINEnutrition@gmail.com!


Bahwere, P., Banda, T., Sadler, K., Nyirenda, G., Owino, V., Shaba, B., Dibari, F., Collins, S.. "Effectiveness of milk whey protein-based ready-to-use therapeutic food in treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Malawian under-5 children: a randomised, double-blind, controlled non-inferiority clinical trial ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 10 , no. 3 (2014) : 436-451
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
van der Kam, S., Roll, S., Salse, N., Jiya, N. M., Swarthout, T. D., Matsumoto, A., Toyoshima, S., Shanks, L.. "Effectiveness of nutritional supplementation (RUTF and multi micronutrient) in preventing malnutrition and morbidity in children 6-59 months with infection ." MSF Field Research (2014)
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Effectiveness
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • GAM
Prado, E. L., Abbeddou, S., Yakes Jimenez, E., Somé, J. W., Dewey, K. G., Brown, K. H., Hess, S. Y.. "Effects of an intervention on infant growth and development: evidence for different mechanisms at work ." Maternal & Child Nutrition (2016)
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Skau, J. K. H., Touch, B., Chhoun, C., Chea, M., Unni, U. S., Makurat, J., Filteau, S., Wieringa, F. T., Dijkhuizen, M. A., Ritz, C., Wells, J. C., Berger, J., Friis, H., Michaelsen, K. F., Roos, N.. "Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth: A randomized trial in Cambodia ." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101 , no. 4 (2015) : 742-751
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Hossain, M. I., Nahar, B., Hamadani, J. D., Ahmed, T., Brown, K. H.. "Effects of community-based follow-up care in managing severely underweight children ." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 53 , no. 3 (2011) : 310-319
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Prado, E. L., Maleta, K., Ashorn, P., Ashorn, U., Vosti, S. A., Sadalaki, J., Dewey, K. G.. "Effects of maternal and child lipid-based nutrient supplements on infant development: a randomized trial in Malawi ." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103 , no. 3 (2016) : 784-793
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Prado, E. L., Adu-Afarwuah, S., Lartey, A., Ocansey, M., Ashorn, P., Vosti, S. A., Dewey, K. G.. "Effects of pre- and post-natal lipid-based nutrient supplements on infant development in a randomized trial in Ghana ." Early Human Development 99 (2016) : 43-51
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • Pregnant & Lactating Women
Adu-Afarwuah, S., Lartey, A., Okronipa, H., Peerson, J., Ashorn, P., Dewey, K.. "Effects of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin and iron status of pregnant Ghanaian women ." The FASEB Journal 29 , no. 1_Supplement (2015) : 39.5-
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Pregnant & Lactating Women
Amegovu, Andrew Kiri, Ochola, Sophie, Ogwok, Patrick, Yiga, Peter, Musalima, Juliet, Juliana, Mandha. "Efficacy of sorghum peanut blend and corn soy blend plus in the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in children aged 6–59 months in Karamoja, Uganda: a cluster randomized trial ." Nutrition & Dietary Supplements 6 (2014) : 75-84
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Locally produced
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Gibbs, M. M., Carriquiry, A. L., Capanzana, M. V., Gibson, R. S.. "Establishing desirable fortificant levels for calcium, iron and zinc in foods for infant and young child feeding: examples from three Asian countries ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 10 , no. 1 (2014) : 112-125
Study Interventions
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Iuel-Brockdorf, A. S., Draebel, T. A., Ritz, C., Fabiansen, C., Cichon, B., Brix Christensen, V., Yameogo, C., Oummani, R., Briend, A., Michaelsen, K. F., Ashorn, P., Filteau, S., Friis, H.. "Evaluation of the acceptability of improved supplementary foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Burkina Faso using a mixed method approach ." Appetite 99 (2016) : 34-45
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Trehan, I., Banerjee, S., Murray, E.. "Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates ." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition 60 , no. 4 (2015) : 544-549
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Mridha, M. K., Chaparro, C. M., Matias, S., Hussain, S., Munira, S.. "Acceptability of lipid-based nutrient supplements and micronutrient powders among pregnant and lactating women and infants and young children in Bangladesh and their perceptions about malnutrition and nutrient supplements ." FANTA 2 Technical Report (2012)
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • Pregnant & Lactating Women
Flax, V. L., Phuka, J., Cheung, Y. B., Ashorn, U., Maleta, K., Ashorn, P.. "Feeding patterns and behaviors during home supplementation of underweight Malawian children with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy blend ." Appetite 54 , no. 3 (2010) : 504-11
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Kerac, M., Bunn, J., Chagaluka, G., Bahwere, P., Tomkins, A., Collins, S., Seal, A.. "Follow-up of post-discharge growth and mortality after treatment for severe acute malnutrition (FuSAM study): a prospective cohort study ." PloS One 9 , no. 6 (2014) : e96030
Study Interventions
  • Other
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Banerjee, C., Hoq, M., Matin, E.. "Follow-up status of children with SAM treated with RUTF in peri-urban and rural Northern Bangladesh ." ENN Field Exchange , no. 50 (2015) : 9
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Karakochuk, C. D., van den Briel, T., Stephens, D., Zlotkin, S.. "Food sharing practices in households receiving supplemental foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Ethiopian children ." Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 10 , no. 3 (2015) : 343-355
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Use
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Tripp, K., Clayton, H., Nanema, A., Mujinga, W., Kupka, R., Sandalinas, F., Nanama, S., Jungjohann, S., Chatelier, M. L., Palma, C.. "Formative assessment to design the packaging of a lipid-based nutrient supplement for a home fortification program to improve the nutritional status of young children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) ." (2013)
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • SAM
  • MAM
Tripp, K., Perrine, C. G., de Campos, P., Knieriemen, M., Hartz, R., Jefferds, M. E., Kupka, R.. "Formative research for the development of a market‐based home fortification programme for young children in Niger ." Maternal & Child Nutrition 7 , no. Supplement 3 (2011) : 82-95
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • SAM
  • MAM
Zebdewos, A., Singh, P., Birhanu, G., Whiting, S. J., Henry, C. J., Kebebu, A.. "Formulation of complementary food using amaranth, chickpea and maize improves iron, calcium and zinc content ." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 15 , no. 4 (2015) : 10290-10304
Study Interventions
  • Locally produced
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Composition
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Reyes, A., Blanton, L. V., Cao, S., Zhao, G., Manary, M., Trehan, I., Smith, M. I., Wang, D., Virgin, H. W., Rohwer, F., Gordon, J. I.. "Gut DNA viromes of Malawian twins discordant for severe acute malnutrition ." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 , no. 38 (2015) : 11941-11946
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Smith, M. I., Yatsunenko, T., Manary, M. J., Trehan, I., Mkakosya, R., Cheng, J., Kau, A. L., Rich, S. S., Concannon, P., Mychaleckyj, J. C., Liu, J., Houpt, E., Li, J. V., Holmes, E., Nicholson, J., Knights, D., Ursell, L. K., Knight, R., Gordon, J. I.. "Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor ." Science 339 , no. 6119 (2013) : 548-554
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Cheung, Y. B., Xu, Y., Mangani, C., Fan, Y. M., Dewey, K. G., Salminen, S. J., Maleta, K., Ashorn, P.. "Gut microbiota in Malawian infants in a nutritional supplementation trial ." Tropical Medicine & International Health 21 , no. 2 (2015) : 283-90
Study Interventions
  • Animal-source protein
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Monira, S, Nakamura, S, Gotoh, K, Izutsu, K, Watanabe, H, Alam, N H, Endtz, H P, Cravioto, A, Ali, S I, Nakaya, T, Horii, T, Iida, T, Alam, M. "Gut microbiota of healthy and malnourished children in Bangladesh ." Front Microbiol 2 (2011) : 228
Hsieh, J. C., Liu, L., Zeilani, M., Ickes, S., Trehan, I., Maleta, K., Craig, C., Thakwalakwa, C., Singh, L., Brenna, J. T., Manary, M. J.. "High oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition: A randomized, blinded trial ." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 61 , no. 1 (2015) : 138-143
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
  • Plant-source protein
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM