Evaluate Bundling of Nutrition Interventions
- Burden: The prevalence of stunting among the under-five children in Bangladesh was >55% in 1997, which reduced to 41.9% in 2011. This reduction took 14 years to achieve with existing interventions, and till today Bangladesh remains among the countries with the highest stunting prevalence.
- Knowledge gap: In the Lancet series on Maternal and Child Nutrition, Bhutta et al (2013) modelled the effect of 10 direct interventions on lives saved and economic costs in 34 countries which contains 90% of the children with stunted growth. Their findings suggested that at 90% coverage, these interventions could cut down under-5 year mortality by 15% and avert one-fifth of stunting. The total additional annual cost was estimated at $9.6 billion. There is a dearth of primary research, however, to determine a feasible, effective bundle of interventions for developing countries.
- Relevance: This study will review and test different sets of nutrition-specific intervention bundles in a cohort of pregnant women and the subsequent impact on the length-for-age Z score (LAZ) of their offspring from that pregnancy.
Hypothesis: Five selected nutrition-specific interventions implemented during early pregnancy and during first two years of child's life in different bundles will cause a shift of 0.4 in mean HAZ score among children at 24 months of age compared to those in comparison arm.
Methods: The investigators propose a community-based randomized trial (CRCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of different combinations of the five selected nutrition-specific interventions and identify the best combination for improving childhood HAZ. Selected interventions include prenatal nutrition supplementation; intensive counselling on prenatal nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding and timely complementary feeding; and complementary food supplementation during 6-23 months. The proposed study area is Habiganj district, Sylhet division. 125 clusters (each ~2000 population or ~450 households) will be selected from 12 homogenous unions in 2 adjacent sub-districts. The clusters will then be randomly assigned to any one of the 5 study arms. Data would be collected at baseline and followed up, including on nutritional intake and anthropometric measurements of mothers and offspring. Primary outcome measure/variable would be mean HAZ of offspring at 24 months. Secondary outcome variables include nutritional intake during pregnancy, maternal weight gain, exclusive breast feeding up-to 6 months, and birth weight.
Implications: The investigators expect that the results will serve to inform and shape future health policy decisions related to promotion of maternal and child health.
- Experimental: Arm 1: nutrition-specific behavior change communication + nutritional supplement to pregnant women + nutritional supplement to children 6m to 2y
- Experimental: Arm 2: nutrition-specific behavior change communication + nutritional supplement to pregnant women
- Experimental: Arm 3: nutrition-specific behavior change communication + nutritional supplement to children 6m to 2y
- Experimental: Arm 4: nutrition-specific behavior change communication
- No intervention: Arm 5: Comparison
- Change in Length-for-age Z scores (LAZ) at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months age of children in intervention vs. comparison arms, compared to the baseline LAZ at 7 days of birth
- Standard Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (LNS)
- Behavior change communication (BCC)
How well do different food compositions and interventions prevent or treat undernutrition, when implemented "on the ground"?