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This page includes publications from individual clinical trials testing food aid products, and reports and evaluations from programs using food aid products. These resources are tagged according to country, nutritional problem studied, intervention used, study type, year, and author. If relevant to more than one category, the document appears in both categories. New resources are added regularly according to search criteria and standards developed by REFINE.

Do you know of a recently published study or trial that isn’t included here? Email us at REFINEnutrition@gmail.com!


Displaying 251 - 275 of 286 Results
Audrie Lin, Benjamin F Arnold, Andrew N Mertens, Jue Lin, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Shahjahan Ali, Alan E Hubbard, Christine P Stewart, Abul K Shoab, Md Ziaur Rahman, Md Saheen Hossen, Palash Mutsuddi, Syeda L Famida, Salma Akther, Mahbubur Rahman, Leanne Unic. "." eLife (2017)
Study Interventions
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
  • Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Pregnant & Lactating Women
Alemayehu Argaw, Mekitie Wondafrash, Kimberley P Bouckaert, Patrick Kolsteren, Carl Lachat, Tefera Belachew, Bruno De Meulenaer, Lieven Huybregts. "." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 107 , no. 3 (2018) : 454-464
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Boris Martinez, Meghan Farley Webb, Ana Gonzalez, Kate Douglas, Maria del Pilar Grazioso, Peter Rohloff. "." BMJ Paediatrics Open 2 , no. 1 (2018)
Study Interventions
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
  • Other
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary. "." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 106 , no. 6 (2017) : 1500-1507
Study Interventions
  • Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED)
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Agapova, S. E., Stephenson, K. B., Divala, O., Kaimila, Y., Maleta K. M., Thakwalakwa, C. Ordiz, M. I., Trehan, I., Manary, M. J.. "BACKGROUND: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi. METHODS: This was a double-blind clinical trial in which children 12-23 mo of age were randomly assigned to receive complementary feeding with 1 of 3 foods: roasted cowpea or common bean flour, or an isoenergetic amount of corn-soy blend as a control food for 48 wk. Children aged 12-23 mo received 155 kcal/d and thereafter until 35 mo received 200 kcal/d. The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in a biomarker of EED, the percentage of lactulose (%L) excreted as part of the lactulose:mannitol dual-sugar absorption test. Anthropometric measurements and urinary %L excretion were compared between the 2 intervention groups and the control group separately with the use of linear mixed model analyses for repeated measures. RESULTS: A total of 331 children completed the clinical trial. Compliance with the study interventions was excellent, with >90% of the intervention flour consumed as intended. No significant effects on LAZ, change in LAZ, or weight-for-length z score were observed due to either intervention legume, compared to the control. %L was reduced with common bean consumption (effect estimate was -0.07 percentage points of lactulose, P = 0.0007). The lactulose:mannitol test was not affected by the legume intervention. CONCLUSION: The addition of common bean to complementary feeding of rural Malawian children during the second year of life led to an improvement in a biomarker of gut health, although this did not directly translate into improved linear growth. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02472301 ." 148 , no. 2 (2018) : 267–274
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Jessica Bliss, Kate Golden, Leila Bourahla, Rebecca Stoltzfus, David Pelletier. "." Journal of Global Health 8 , no. 1 (2018)
Study Interventions
  • Cash transfer
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Sibson VL, Grijalva-Eternod CS, Noura G, Lewis J, Kladstrup K, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Skordis-Worrall J, Colbourn T, Morrison J, Seal AJ. "." Maternal & Child Nutrition 4 , no. 14 (2018)
Study Interventions
  • Cash transfer
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Robert H. J. Bandsma , Wieger Voskuijl, Emmanuel Chimwezi, Greg Fegan, André Briend, Johnstone Thitiri, Moses Ngari, Laura Mwalekwa, Victor Bandika, Rehema Ali, Fauzat Hamid, Betty Owor, Neema Mturi, James A. Berkley. "     ." PLoS Medicine 2 , no. 16 (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Isanaka S, Barnhart DA, McDonald CM, Ackatia-Armah RS, Kupka R, Doumbia S, Brown KH, Menzies NA.. "." BMJ Global Health 4 , no. 2 (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Jadhav AR, Karnik P, Fernandes L, Fernandes S, Shah N, Manglani M.. "." Indian Pediatrics 4 , no. 56 (2019) : 287-293
Study Interventions
  • Locally produced
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
McDonald CM, Ackatia-Armah RS, Doumbia S, Kupka R, Duggan CP, Brown KH.. "." The Journal of Nutrition 6 , no. 149 (2019) : 1089–1096
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Kohlmann K, Callaghan-Gillespie M, Gauglitz JM, Steiner-Asiedu M, Saalia K, Edwards C, Manary MJ.. "BACKGROUND: Only 20% of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have access to ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), and RUTF cost limits its accessibility. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind controlled study involved a clinical equivalence trial comparing the effectiveness of an alternative RUTF with standard RUTF in the home-based treatment of uncomplicated SAM and moderate malnutrition in Ghanaian children aged 6 to 59 months. The primary outcome was recovery, equivalence was defined as being within 5 percentage points of the control group, and an intention-to-treat analysis was used. Alternative RUTF was composed of whey protein, soybeans, peanuts, sorghum, milk, sugar, and vegetable oil. Standard RUTF included peanuts, milk, sugar, and vegetable oil. The cost of alternative RUTF ingredients was 14% less than standard RUTF. Untargeted metabolomics was used to characterize the bioactive metabolites in the RUTFs. RESULTS: Of the 1,270 children treated for SAM or moderate malnutrition, 554 of 628 (88%) receiving alternative RUTF recovered (95% confidence interval [CI]=85% to 90%) and 516 of 642 (80%) receiving standard RUTF recovered (95% CI=77% to 83%). The difference in recovery was 7.7% (95% CI=3.7% to 11.7%). Among the 401 children with SAM, the recovery rate was 130 of 199 (65%) with alternative RUTF and 156 of 202 (77%) with standard RUTF (P=.01). The default rate in SAM was 60 of 199 (30%) for alternative RUTF and 41 of 202 (20%) for standard RUTF (P=.04). Children enrolled with SAM who received alternative RUTF had less daily weight gain than those fed standard RUTF (2.4 ± 2.4 g/kg vs. 2.9 ± 2.6 g/kg, respectively; P<.05). Among children with moderate wasting, recovery rates were lower for alternative RUTF, 386 of 443 (87%), than standard RUTF, 397 of 426 (93%) (P=.003). More isoflavone metabolites were found in alternative RUTF than in the standard. CONCLUSION: The lower-cost alternative RUTF was less effective than standard RUTF in the treatment of severe and moderate malnutrition in Ghana. ." Global Health: Science and Practice 7 , no. 2 (2019) : 203-214
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Composition
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Kwaku Tano-Debrah, PhD, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, PhD, Shibani Ghosh, PhD, Masashi Hara, PhD. "." Food And Nutrition Bulletin (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Peter Akomo, Paluku Bahwere, Hitoshi Murakami, Chrissy Banda, Elizabeth Maganga, Sylvester Kathumba, Kate Sadler and Steve Collins. "." BMC Public Health 19 (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
Taylor S, Silver R, Franceschini M, Muentener P, de Sa AB, Co R, Sonco A, Balé C, Saltzman E, Roberts S.. "  OBJECTIVES: Undernutrition is prevalent among young children worldwide and is associated with impaired cognition and reduced educational attainment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the effect of a novel supplementary food (regenerative nutrition for enhanced wellness-cognition; RENEW-C) compared to traditional feeding practices on cognitive function, cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Children aged 15 months to 7 years (n = 1059) were randomized to receive isocaloric quantities of RENEW-C (a highly-fortified cocoa-based bar), a USAID fortified blended food (FBF) or a Control food (rice cooked with oil, replicating a traditional breakfast). The primary outcome was executive function. Secondary outcomes included a cerebral blood flow index (CBFi) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) measured by Frequency-Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Diffusion Correlation Spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS, MetaOx, ISS Inc.). Six-month changes for RENEW-C and FBF versus Controls were assessed by multivariable linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, baseline measurement, and study cohort. RESULTS: Improvements in executive function (0.38; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.71; P = 0.02) were observed for RENEW-C compared to Controls in the predefined study focus (children < 4 years consuming >75% their supplement). There was no significant effect of RENEW-C in children ≥ 4 years. No benefit of the FBF was observed in either age group. In addition, changes in CBFi and CMRO2 in RENEW-C children were greater than in Controls in both ventrolateral prefrontal cortical regions (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04 for left and right, respectively) and greater than FBF in the left ventrolateral (P = 0.05) and left dorsolateral (P = 0.03) prefrontal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with traditional feeding practices, the RENEW-C supplement consumption was correlated with a marked improvement in executive function among children < 4 years and large increases in vascular perfusion and oxygen metabolism in a region where undernutrition is prevalent. These results indicate that new approaches to formulating supplementary foods for children at risk of undernutrition can potentially yield substantial improvements in brain health and cognition. ." Current Developments in Nutrition 3 , no. Supp 1 (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Soofi S, Nawaz G, Garzon C.. "." Curren Developments in Nutrition Supp 1 , no. 3 (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
. "." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 32 , no. 3 (2019) : 295-302
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Bindi Borg, Seema Mihrshahi, Mark Griffin, Daream Sok, Chamnan Chhoun, Arnaud Laillou, Frank T. Wieringa. "." Maternal & Child Nutrition 15 , no. 3 (2019)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Deanna K Olney, Jef Leroy, Lilia Bliznashka, and Marie T Ruel. " Background Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs may foster child growth during the first 1000 d (pregnancy and the first 2 y of a child's life), but evidence is scant. Objective We evaluated the impact of an FA-MCHN program, PROCOMIDA, on linear growth (stunting [length-for-age z score (LAZ) < –2] and length-for-age difference [LAD]) among children aged 1–24 mo. PROCOMIDA was implemented in Guatemala by Mercy Corps and was available to beneficiaries throughout the first 1000 d. Methods We used a longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial with groups varying in family ration sizes [full (FFR), reduced (RFR), and none (NFR)] and individual ration types provided to mothers (pregnancy to 6 mo postpartum) and children (6–24 mo of age) [corn-soy blend (CSB), lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS), micronutrient powder (MNP)]: 1) FFR + CSB (n = 576); 2) RFR + CSB (n = 575); 3) NFR + CSB (n = 542); 4) FFR + LNS (n = 550); 5) FFR + MNP (n = 587); 6) control (n = 574). Program impacts compared with control, and differential impacts between groups varying family ration size or individual ration type, were assessed through the use of linear mixed-effects models and post hoc simple effect tests (significant if P < 0.05). Results PROCOMIDA significantly reduced stunting at age 1 mo in FFR + CSB, RFR + CSB, and FFR + MNP groups compared with control [5.05, 4.06, and 3.82 percentage points (pp), respectively]. Stunting impact increased by age 24 mo in FFR + CSB and FFR + MNP relative to control (impact = 11.1 and 6.5 pp at age 24 mo, respectively). For CSB recipients, the FFR compared with RFR or NFR significantly reduced stunting (6.47–9.68 pp). CSB reduced stunting significantly more than LNS at age 24 mo (8.12 pp). Conclusions FA-MCHN programs can reduce stunting during the first 1000 d, even in relatively energy/food-secure populations. Large family rations with individual rations of CSB or MNP were most effective. The widening of impact as children age highlights the importance of intervening throughout the full first 1000 d. ." The Journal of Nutrition 148 , no. 9 (2018) : 1493–1505
Study Interventions
  • Behavior change communication (BCC)
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Micronutrient powders (MNP)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
Wataru Sato, Chie Furuta, Keiko Matsunaga, Paluku Bahwere, Steve Collins, Kate Sadler, Peter Akomo, Chrissy Banda, Elizabeth Maganga, Sylvester Kathumba, Hitoshi Murakami. "." PLoS One 13 , no. 8 (2018)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • MAM
Sigh S, Roos N, Sok D, Borg B, Chamnan C, Laillou A, Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT.. "." Food and Nutrition Bulletin 39 , no. 8 (2018)
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Acceptability
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • SAM
  • MAM
Cambria M. Glosz, Andrew A. Schaffner, Scott K. Reaves, Mark J. Manary, and Peggy C. Papathakis. "." Nutrients 10 , no. 7 (2018) : 879
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • SAM
Briony Stevens, Kerrianne Watt, Julie Brimbecombe, Alan Clough, Jenni A. Judd, and Daniel Lindsay. " Background Prenatal balanced protein energy supplementation consumed by undernourished women improves mid-upper arm circumference in early infancy. This study aimed to identify whether locally produced maternal food-based supplementation improved anthropometric measures at birth and early infancy. Methods A village-matched evaluation, applying principles of a cluster randomised controlled trial, of a locally produced supplemental food to 87 undernourished pregnant women. 12 villages (intervention: n = 8; control: n = 4) in Pirganj sub-district, Rangpur District, northern Bangladesh. Daily supplements were provided. Results Anthropometric data at birth were available for 77 mother-infant dyads and longer-term infant growth data for 75 infants. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was significantly larger in infants of mothers in the intervention group compared with the control group at 6 months (p < 0.05). The mean birth weight in babies of supplemented mothers (mean: 2·91 kg; SD: 0·19) was higher than in babies of mothers in the control group (mean: 2·72 kg; SD: 0·13), and these changes persisted until 6 months. Also, the proportion of low birth weight babies in the intervention group was much lower (event rate = 0.04) than in the control group (event rate = 0.16). However, none of these differences were statistically significant (p > 0·05; most likely due to small sample size). The intervention reduced the risk of wasting at 6 months by 63.38% (RRR = 0.6338), and of low birth weight by 88·58% (RRR = 0.8858), with NNT of 2.22 and 6.32, respectively. Only three pregnant women require this intervention in order to prevent wasting at 6 months in one child, and seven need the intervention to prevent low birth weight of one child. Conclusions Locally produced food-based balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women in northern Bangladesh resulted in larger MUAC in infants at 6 months. Further research, with larger sample sizes, is required to confirm the role of locally produced supplementation for undernourished pregnant women on weight and linear growth in newborns and infants. ." BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth 18 (2018) : 286
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
  • Locally produced
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Maku E Ocansey, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Sika M Kumordzie, Harriet Okronipa, Rebecca R Young, Solace M Tamakloe, Brietta M Oaks, Kathryn G Dewey, and Elizabeth L Prado. "." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 , no. 2 (2019) : 322–334
Study Interventions
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
  • Innovation
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted
  • MAM
Jef L Leroy, Deanna Olney, Marie Ruel. "." The Journal of Nutrition 148 , no. 3 (2018) : 445–452
Study Interventions
  • Fortified blended foods (FBF)
Research Gaps
  • Effectiveness
Nutritional Problems being Studied
  • Stunted